Corticosteroid agents are beneficial in the management of tuberculosis in children when the host inflammatory reaction contributes significantly to tissue damage or impaired function. 208 Corticosteroids decrease mortality rates and long-term neurologic sequelae in patients with tuberculous meningitis by reducing vasculitis, inflammation, and increased intracranial pressure. 209 A CNS inflammatory mass that arises during therapy of tuberculous meningitis usually responds to corticosteroid therapy. Children with enlarged hilar lymph nodes that compress the tracheobronchial tree, causing respiratory distress, localized emphysema, or collapse-consolidation lesions, frequently benefit from corticosteroid therapy. 210 Corticosteroids may benefit the course of miliary disease associated with alveolar-capillary block, pleural effusion, or pericardial effusion. Prednisone is used most commonly at the dose of 1 to 2 mg/kg per day for 4 to 6 weeks.
Inhaled corticosteroids are medications used to treat asthma. They are taken by using an inhaler. This medication should be taken consistently so that it decreases inflammation in the airways of your lungs and prevents asthma flare-ups. Inhaled corticosteroids are considered the most effective long term usage medication for control and management of asthma. Depending upon the severity of your asthma, your physician may combine an inhaled corticosteroid with a long-acting beta-2 agonist to treat your condition. Oral and intravenous corticosteroids may be required for acute asthma flare-ups or for severe symptoms.
How often cortisone injections are given varies based on the reason for the injection. This is determined on a case-by-case basis by the health care practitioner. If a single cortisone injection is curative, then further injections are unnecessary. Sometimes, a series of injections might be necessary; for example, cortisone injections for a trigger finger may be given every three weeks, to a maximum of three times in one affected finger. In other instances, such as knee osteoarthritis, a second cortisone injection may be given approximately three months after the first injection, but the injections are not generally continued on a regular basis.