These yellowish bumps on the skin can be very small or large. If they are numerous or atypical they should be checked by a dermatologist. Very unusually these lesions can be associated with colon problems and a colonoscopy might be worthwhile. All destructive treatments, shaving, Ellman radiosurgery/radiofrequency, electrodesiccation can result in some lesions becoming deeper than the normal surrounding skin. In expert hands, the very careful application of a very strong concentration of 100% trichloracetic acid may help flatten them. The only way to prevent the same lesion from regrowing would be to surgically excise it but that may leave an unsatisfactory result.
Cicatricial alopecia is hair loss resulting from a condition that damages the scalp and hair follicle 7 ( Figure 5 ) . In addition to a bald spot, the scalp usually has an abnormal appearance. Plaques of erythema with or without scaling or pustules may be present. Conditions that can be associated with cicatricial alopecia include infections (., syphilis, tuberculosis, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, herpes zoster), autoimmune disease (discoid lupus erythematosus), sarcoidosis, scalp trauma (., injuries, burns), and radiation therapy. 7
Epidemiology. Findings regarding prevalence rates depend on the methodology employed, the sample under study, how PD is defined, and how men are queried with ranges from % to % within specific populations. Using a population-based methodology in a . sample aged 18 years and older, Dibenedetti (2011) reported a prevalence rate of % for men who had been formally diagnosed with PD, a rate of % for men who had been diagnosed or treated for PD, and a rate of % for men who had been diagnosed or treated or had any symptom of PD. 12 Schwarzer (2001) conducted a community-based study among men in Cologne, Germany and reported a prevalence rate of % in men aged 31-78 years. 13 Another population-based study in Italian men reported a prevalence rate of % among men aged 50-69 years. 14 Among men older than age 40 years screened for prostate cancer in the ., a prevalence of % was reported. 15 Men older than 50 years screened for prostate cancer in Southern Brazil had a prevalence rate of %. 16 Rates may be higher among men who present with comorbidities. El-Sakka (2006) reported a prevalence rate of % among men who presented with ED. 17 Arafa (2007) reported a rate of % among men who were diabetic with ED. 18 Together, this group of studies suggests that prevalence rates historically have been under-estimated. The higher rates detected in more recent studies suggest a greater awareness of the disease and its symptoms.