Synergistic interaction between hesperidin , a natural flavonoid, and diazepam.
Eur J Pharmacol. 2005.
It has been recently reported the presence in Valeriana of the flavone 6-methylapigenin and the flavanone glycoside hesperidin. The apigenin derivative is a ligand for the benzodiazepine binding site in the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor type A (GABA(A)) and has anxiolytic properties. Hesperidin has sedative and sleep-enhancing properties but is not a ligand for the benzodiazepine binding site. 6-Methylapigenin is able to potentiate the sleep-enhancing effect of hesperidin. In this work we demonstrate that this property is shared with various GABA(A) receptor ligands, among them the agonist diazepam, which was used to study the potentiation as measured in the hole board test. Isobolar analysis of the results showed the interaction being synergistic. We discarded pharmacokinetic effects or a direct action of hesperidin on the benzodiazepine binding site. A possible use of hesperidin properties to decrease the effective therapeutic doses of benzodiazepines is suggested.
It is also suggested that there is an interaction between hormone levels and eating at different points in the female menstrual cycle . Research has predicted increased emotional eating during hormonal flux, which is characterized by high progesterone and estradiol levels that occur during the mid- luteal phase . It is hypothesized that these changes occur due to brain changes across the menstrual cycle that are likely a genomic effect of hormones. These effects produce menstrual cycle changes, which result in hormone release leading to behavioral changes, notably binge and emotional eating. These occur especially prominently among women who are genetically vulnerable to binge eating phenotypes.