Vitamin d levels lung function and steroid response

The four tocotrienols (alpha, beta, gamma, delta) are similar in structure to the four tocopherols, with the main difference being that the former have hydrophobic side chains with three carbon-carbon double bonds, whereas the tocopherols have saturated side chains. For alpha(α) -tocotrienol each of the three "R" sites has a methyl group (CH 3 ) attached. For beta(β) -tocotrienol: R1 = Methyl, R2 = H, R3= Methyl. For gamma(γ) -tocotrienol: R1 = H, R2 = Methyl, R3= Methyl. For delta(δ) -tocotrienol: R1 = H, R2 = H, R3= Methyl. Palm oil is a source. Preliminary clinical trials on dietary supplement tocotrienols indicate potential for anti-disease activity. [61]

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Most people with cystic fibrosis have pancreatic insufficiency, increasing their risk of vitamin A deficiency due to difficulty absorbing fat [ 20 , 21 ]. Several cross-sectional studies found that 15%–40% of patients with cystic fibrosis have vitamin A deficiency [ 22 ]. However, improved pancreatic replacement treatments, better nutrition, and caloric supplements have helped most patients with cystic fibrosis become vitamin A sufficient [ 21 ]. Several studies have shown that oral supplementation can correct low serum beta-carotene levels in people with cystic fibrosis, but no controlled studies have examined the effects of vitamin A supplementation on clinical outcomes in patients with cystic fibrosis [ 21-23 ].

Studies on the South Asian population uniformly point to low 25(OH)D levels, despite abundant sunshine. [39] Rural men around Delhi average 44 nmol/L. Healthy Indians seem have low 25(OH)D levels which are not very different from healthy South Asians living in Canada. South Indian patients with ischemic heart disease have serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 levels which are above  nmol/l and considered extremely high. [18] Measuring melanin content to assess skin pigmentation showed an inverse relationship with serum 25(OH)D. [36] The uniform occurrence of very low serum 25(OH)D in Indians living in India and Chinese in China does not support the hypothesis that the low levels seen in the more pigmented are due to lack of synthesis from the sun at higher latitudes. A study of French Canadians found that a significant minority did not maximize ingested serum 25(OH)D for genetic reasons; vitamin D-binding protein polymorphisms explained as much of the variation in circulating 25(OH)D as did total ingestion of vitamin D. [40] [41]

Vitamin d levels lung function and steroid response

vitamin d levels lung function and steroid response

Studies on the South Asian population uniformly point to low 25(OH)D levels, despite abundant sunshine. [39] Rural men around Delhi average 44 nmol/L. Healthy Indians seem have low 25(OH)D levels which are not very different from healthy South Asians living in Canada. South Indian patients with ischemic heart disease have serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 levels which are above  nmol/l and considered extremely high. [18] Measuring melanin content to assess skin pigmentation showed an inverse relationship with serum 25(OH)D. [36] The uniform occurrence of very low serum 25(OH)D in Indians living in India and Chinese in China does not support the hypothesis that the low levels seen in the more pigmented are due to lack of synthesis from the sun at higher latitudes. A study of French Canadians found that a significant minority did not maximize ingested serum 25(OH)D for genetic reasons; vitamin D-binding protein polymorphisms explained as much of the variation in circulating 25(OH)D as did total ingestion of vitamin D. [40] [41]

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